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Psychological Test Intepretation

Dr. Frederick is available to score and interpret a wide variety of self-administered tests.


Self-administered tests are “self-administered” in the sense that very little interaction occurs between the examiner and the client.  In general, clients do not require direct supervision while they are completing the task, but (1) the tests must be completed in a secure setting (no one else can provide answers to items in person, by text, or by e-mail, and clients cannot take the materials out of the secure setting), (2) someone must be available to monitor test security, (3) instructions must be read to the client or provided in a standard fashion, and test forms must be reviewed for completeness, and (4) for some tests, answer sheets must be collected after certain time intervals.  If the tests are administered in the same way they were administered to the normative samples, then standard interpretive statements are applicable.  Once the data are collected they can be sent to Dr. Frederick for scoring and interpretation. 

Dr. Frederick provides all test forms, purchased from the publisher.


Typical turn-around for scoring and interpretation:  Within 24 hours--usually same day.


Consultation on each prepared report when requested.



Personality tests




The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3 (MMPI-3) is an empirically-based assessment of adult psychopathology used by clinicians to assist with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. 


335 True-False items

Age Range:  18 years and older

Reading Level:  4.5 grade (Flesch-Kincaid)

Admin time:  35-50 minutes

Norms:  A nationally representative community sample of adult men and women (810 men and 810 women between the ages of 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities within the U.S.). 



Composed of 338 items, with the RC (Restructured Clinical) Scales at its core, the MMPI-2-RF is linked to current models of psychopathology and personality.


338 True-False items

Age Range:  18 years and older

Reading Level:  4.5 grade (Flesch-Kincaid)

Admin time:  35-50 minutes

Norms:  The MMPI-2-RF normative sample is drawn from the MMPI-2 normative sample and consists of 2,276 men and women between the ages 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities in the U.S.  

Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI)


The 344 PAI items constitute 22 non-overlapping scales covering the constructs most relevant to a broad-based assessment of mental disorders: four validity scales, 11 clinical scales, five treatment scales, and two interpersonal scales. To facilitate interpretation and to cover the full range of complex clinical constructs, 10 scales contain conceptually derived subscales.

Age range:  18 to 89 years

Admin time:  50-60 minutes

Norms:  Reliability and validity are based on data from a U.S. Census-matched normative sample of 1,000 community-dwelling adults, a sample of 1,265 patients from 69 clinical sites, and a college sample of 1,051 students.


Health inventory


Battery for Health Improvement—2  (BHI-2)


A 217-item multiple-choice questionnaire that provide assessment of physical symptoms, and psychological, character, environment, and social factors that can impact response to normal course of treatment and recovery of patients being treated for pain and injury.  Assessment of validity of responses is provided.

Age range:  18 to 65

Admin time:  30 minutes


Posttraumatic stress disorder assessments


Trauma Symptom Inventory—2  (TSI-2)


A broadband measure, the TSI-2 is designed to evaluate posttraumatic stress and other psychological sequelae of traumatic events, including the effects of sexual and physical assault, intimate partner violence, combat, torture, motor vehicle accidents, mass casualty events, medical trauma, traumatic losses, and childhood abuse or neglect.

Age range:  18 to 88 years

Admin time:  20 minutes

Norms:  The validation sample consisted of five non-overlapping clinical groups: combat veterans, individuals with borderline personality disorder, sexual abuse victims, victims of domestic violence, and incarcerated women. A sample of subjects simulating PTSD was used to test malingering.


Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress (DAPS)


A 104-item measure, the DAPS generates a tentative diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or acute stress disorder in considerably less time than is required for a structured diagnostic interview.  This diagnosis can then be confirmed by a clinical interview.  Assesses both current and lifetime history of trauma exposure and the severity and clinical significance of the client’s posttraumatic symptoms, including dissociative, cognitive, and emotional responses.

Age range:  18 to 91 years

Admin time:  20-30 minutes

Norms:  Trauma-exposed adults from the general population, as well as two validity samples: trauma-exposed adults in a clinical/community sample and a university validity sample.


Cognitive and executive functioning


Reynolds Adaptable Intelligence Test (RAIT)           **A timed test**


The RAIT is a rapid, reliable, and valid intelligence test designed for group or individual administration. Composed of seven subtests that assess crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence, and quantitative aptitude or intelligence.  Designed to provide continuity of measurement across a wide age span.  Requires minimal reading skill and almost no motor coordination and visual-motor skill, reducing the complications that can occur when manipulated objects (e.g., blocks) are used to assess intelligence.

Age range:  10 to 75 years

Admin time:  50 minutes for full battery; 30 minutes for crystallized and fluid subtests only

Norms:  Standardized on a 2010-Census-matched sample of 2,124 individuals.

**Timing**:  One part of the test must be completed within 30 minutes; the other part of the test must be completed within 20 minutes


Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function—Adult Version (BRIEF-A)


The BRIEF-A is a standardized measure that captures views of an adult’s executive functions or self-regulation in his or her everyday environment. Both a self-report and an informant report are used.  The BRIEF-A is composed of 75 items within nine nonoverlapping theoretically and empirically derived clinical scales: Inhibit, Self-Monitor, Plan/Organize, Shift, Initiate, Task Monitor, Emotional Control, Working Memory, and Organization of Materials.

Age range:  18 to 90 years

Admin time:  10-15 minutes to administer

Norms:  Normative sample included 1,136 adults from a wide range of racial/ethnic backgrounds, educational backgrounds, and geographic regions. Profiles for diagnostic groups, including ADHD, Alzheimer’s disease, and multiple sclerosis, are presented.


Feigned cognitive impairment


Validity Indicator Profile (VIP)


Designed to help meet the increasing need for a well-validated, psychometrically sound test that can provide empirical support in courtrooms and other legal institutions, the VIP test provides a broad spectrum of information about an individual's performance on an assessment battery.  As a measure of response styles, test results help assess whether the results of cognitive, neuropsychological or other types of testing should be considered representative of an individual's overall capacities.

Age Range:  Individuals 18–69 years old

Reading Level:  Varies

Admin time:  Verbal subtest, 20 minutes (78 items); Nonverbal subtest, 30 minutes (100 items)


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